Penuturan Kronik China tentang Kerajaan di Sumatera
The kingdom of San-bo-tsai is that of the southern barbarians. It is
situated between Cambodja (Chen-la) and Java (She-p'o), and rules over
fifteen different states. Its products are rattan, red kino,
lignum-aloes, areca-nuts (pin-lang), and cocoa-nuts. They use no copper
cash, but their custom is to trade in all kinds of things with gold and
silver. The weather is mostly hot, and in winter they have no frost or
snow. The people rub their bodies with fragrant oil. This country does
not produce barley, but they have rice, and yellow and green peas. They
make wine from flowers, cocoa-nuts, pin-lang or honey 3 . They write
with Sanskrit 4 characters, and the king uses his finger-ring as a seal ;
they know also Chinese characters; in sending tributes (to China) they
write with them. With a favourable wind the distance from this country
to Kwang-tung (Canton) is twenty days. Many family names there are "
P'u." In 960, the king Shih-li-ku- ta-hia-li-tan 5 sent tribute to
China. In 992, this country was invaded by Java.
In 1003, two
envoys from San-bo-tsai related that a Buddhist temple was erected in
order to pray for the long life of the Chinese emperor, and the emperor
gave to that temple a name and a bell specially cast for the purpose. In
1017, an envoy from thence brought bundles of Sanskrit books, folded
In 1082, three envoys came to have an audience of the emperor, and presented lotus-flowers of gold 6 (Chin-lien-hua) containing pearls, ca?nphor-baros, and sa-tien.'